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Passive Optical Network
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Passive Optical Network (PON) is a telecommunications technology that implements a point-to-multipoint architecture, in which unpowered Fiber Optic Splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple end-points such as customers, without having to provision individual fibers between the hub and customer.
A PON consists of an optical line terminal (OLT) at the service provider's central office (hub) and a number of optical network units (ONUs) or Optical Network Terminals (ONTs), near end users. A PON reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared with point-to-point architectures. A passive optical network is a form of fiber-optic access network.
In most cases, downstream signals are broadcast to all premises sharing multiple fibers. Encryption can prevent eavesdropping.
Upstream signals are combined using a multiple access protocol, usually time division multiple access (TDMA).
APON/BPON, EPON and GPON have been widely deployed. EPON has approximately 40 million deployed ports and ranks first in deployments. GPON growth has been steady, but fewer than 2 million installed ports. For TDM-PON, a passive optical splitter is used in the optical distribution network. In the upstream direction, each ONU (optical network units) or ONT (optical network terminal) burst transmits for an assigned time-slot (multiplexed in the time domain). In this way, the OLT is receiving signals from only one ONU or ONT at any point in time. In the downstream direction, the OLT (usually) continuously transmits (or may burst transmit). ONUs or ONTs see their own data through the address labels embedded in the signal.
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